By Bernardine Adkins

The standard weaponry of so-called trade wars are tariffs and quotas – observe the most recent tensions between the US and China where both have been spurring each other on in increasing tariffs on aluminium, steel, and aircraft parts.

Our Protectionism 2.0 report considers something different in the trade landscape – the threat of digital protectionism – that is, those measures that restrict the data flows crucial to businesses in this digital age. As explored in the report, these measures pose as much a threat to international trade as their cruder ‘traditional’ tools of trade protectionism.