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The Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA) has given some further colour on how it intends to supervise international banks operating in the UK.
These are contractual terms between shareholders that are usually included in the articles of association.
A ratchet is a structure whereby the eventual equity allocations between the shareholders depend on future performance of the company or the rate of return achieved by the venture capital firm.
Venture capital investors will agree with the company in which they intend to invest on a valuation for the company prior to the new investment round.
An English scheme for a company that has a ‘sufficiently close connection’ with the jurisdiction can be proposed, albeit recognition in Poland is at the discretion of the Polish courts.
The High Court has decided how the expected surplus assets of Lehman Brothers International Europe should be distributed between a number of creditors.
A guarantor will be released from liability if the parties to the contract that is guaranteed vary its terms if it does not confirm its obligations.
Rodney Dukes and Richard Bursby discuss the hotels market and some basic issues that borrowers and lenders in this sector typically need to address.
Performance bonds are widely used in a variety of commercial agreements from construction contracts to insolvency business sales.
The proper construction of a share charge meant the benefit of two unsecured shareholder loan agreements formed part of the security package created by the document.
As of 1 October 2012, transfers of majority shares in a private limited liability company have become more complicated.
An English court has sanctioned a scheme of arrangement under the Companies Act 2006 relating wholly to debt that was subject to a New York governing law provision.
Finance Update — March 2014: has the US flipped on the enforceability of liquidation protocols in swaps?
A US court has now recognised as effective the liquidation protocol contained in an ISDA governed interest rate swap.
An employee share option plan reserves and allocates a percentage of the shares of the company for share option grants to current and future employees.
Sometimes there is a prohibition on the payment of any dividend, which may be for a limited period of time.
Investors will want to protect the value of their shares from dilution in the event the company issues new shares. This article examines the formulas they use to achieve this.
Where venture capital investors hold a preferred class of shares and it is permitted to convert these to ordinary shares, they generally require the right to convert them at any time.
Simon Walker looks at under what circumstances an investor may be qualified to leave the company.
The liquidation preference is a right that can be required by venture capital investors in recognition of the risk they bear on their capital contribution.
The right of redemption is the right to demand under certain conditions that the company buys back its own shares from its investors at a fixed price.