Carrier's responsibility under international conventions
The most well-known international carriage of goods conventions are: the Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road (CMR); the International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Relating to Bills of Lading (HVR); the International Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea (Hamburg Rules); the UN Convention Rotterdam Rules (RR); the Budapest Convention on the Contract for the Carriage of Goods by Inland Waterway (CMNI); the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air (Warsaw); and the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air (Montreal).
These conventions apply contractually or if the country is a signatory to them. If so, they apply to every contract for international carriage of goods either by road, sea or air. For instance, CMR applies to contracts for the international carriage of goods by road in vehicles for reward, when the place of taking over of the goods and the place designated for delivery, as specified in the contract, are situated in two different countries, of which at least one is a contracting country. However, HVR applies only to contracts of carriage covered by a bill of lading or any similar document of title, in so far as such document relates to the carriage of goods by sea, including any bill of lading or any similar document as aforesaid issued under or pursuant to a charter party from the moment at which such bill of lading or similar document of title regulates the relations between a carrier and a holder of the same…
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